The Long Chess Match between the United States and the Soviet Union...


AP Euro--November 30th Study Guide French Revolution

For this study guide, please refer to 693-704 in your text.  Only the first 14 questions are due for Thursday, December 2nd.  Below the actual study guide, you'll find some notes on the French Revolution that may clear up anything you didn't understand or help you to better understand the material.

AP Euro French Revolution Questions:
1.       What was the impact of the American Revolution on France and on the rest of Europe?
2.       Even though the French government was no more tyrannical or unjust in the late 1780s than it had been in the past, what failed in France's political system and society that set off a revolution?
3.       What were some of the economic reforms proposed by Jacques Turgot?  Why did he fail?
4.       How was Necker's approach to dealing with France's financial difficulties different from Turgot?
5.       What were Charles Calonne's economic proposals?  Why was he shocked at the refusal of the Assembly of Notables to endorse them?
6.       Why was the Estates-General reconvened after a century and a half?
7.       In the local elections which ultimately sent representatives to the Estates General, which groups held a majority in each Estate?
8.       What was Abbé Sieyès's view of the third estate?  Why did the third estate clash with the other privileged estates?
9.       Explain the actions taken in creating the National Assembly.
10.   What was the significance of the fall of the Bastille?  Why did it help save the National Assembly and the Revolution?
11.   Trace and account for the increasing intervention of the peasants and other commoners in the summer and early fall of 1789.
12.   What was the Great Fear?  What was its impact on the National Assembly?
13.   List the major political and philosophical principles espoused in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.
14.   How did Edmund Burke counter the views expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen?
15.   What type of government was established by the Constitution of 1791?  Which groups were dissatisfied?  Why?
16.   How did Olympe de Gouge's reworking of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen transform its meaning?  How did male revolutionaries respond to her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen?
17.   What practical role did women actually play in the French Revolution?
18.   Identify some of the gains made by women during the French Revolution.
19.   How did the French revolutionaries deal with the issue of race and discrimination regarding Jews, and free Negroes and mulattos [in France's Caribbean colonies?
20.   How did the National Assembly restructure France administratively?
21.   How did the National Assembly apply revolutionary ideas to the economy?
22.   What were the policies of the National Assembly toward the Catholic Church?  How did these policies revolutionize church-state relationships throughout France and the rest of Western Europe?
23.   What were the consequences of the government policy of selling church lands and issuing assignats?
24.   What was the reaction of the various European governments to the revolutionary events in France?
25.   How did the Brunswick Manifesto affect developments in France?
26.   Why did the Legislative Assembly disappear and a new National Convention emerge?
27.   Why were peasants and urban workers dissatisfied with the course of events by late 1791-early 1792?
28.   Who were the Jacobins?  the sans-culotte?  Why did the latter support the former?
29.   Why might the insurrection of August, 1792 be called the "Second" French Revolution?
30.   What caused the French Revolution to enter a second, more radical phase?
31.   Who were the Girondins and the Montagnards [Mountain]?  What were their political points of view?  Who were their major supporters?
32.   What political positions did the centrists [the Plain] take?
33.   What groups represented the counter-revolutionary forces in 1792-1794?  What characterized the regions in which counter-revolutionary movements emerged?
34.   What role did the Jacobin Club play in the "Second" French Revolution?
35.   Why could it be said about the French Revolution [and other revolutions in history] that "revolutions devour their children?"
36.   Why did the Reign of Terror occur?
37.   Which social classes in revolutionary France were most affected by the Terror?   least affected?   Why?
38.   What type of government did Robespierre try to create in 1792-1794?  Identify some of the specific changes and programs introduced.
39.   How were radical women treated by the Jacobin?
40.   How was the French army becoming more egalitarian and democratic by the end of 1793?

41.   Louis XVI
42.   Marie Antoinette
43.   Flour War
44.   bourgeoisie
45.   Jacques Turgot
46.   taille
47.   corvée
48.   lettres de cachet
49.   Jacques Necker
50.   Charles Calonne
51.   territorial subvention
52.   Assembly of Notables
53.   Estates General
54.   Abbé Sieyès
55.   cahiers de doléances
56.   National Assembly
57.   Tennis Court Oath
58.   Bastille
59.   July 14, 1789
60.   tricolor
61.   August 4 Decree
62.   "Great Fear"
63.   Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
64.   Edmund Burke
65.   Reflections on the Revolution in France
66.   Mary Wollstonecraft
67.   Vindication of the Rights of Woman
68.   Constituent Assembly
69.   French Constitution of 1791
70.   Olympe de Gouges
71.   Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen
72.   Jacobin Club
73.   Toussaint-L'Ouverture
74.   assignats
75.   Civil Constitution of the Clergy
76.   non-juring [refractory] clergy
77.   émigrés
78.   Legislative Assembly
79.   First Coalition
80.   Tuileries
81.   Brunswick Manifesto
82.   National Convention
83.   Liberté!  Egalité!  Fraternité!
84.   La Marseillaise      [play the tune]
85.   Paris Commune
86.   Jean-Paul Marat
87.   Revolutionary Tribunal
88.   guillotine
89.   Girondin
90.   Georges Danton
91.   Jacobin Club
92.   Maximillian Robespierre
93.   Montagnard
94.   Plain
95.   sans-culottes
96.   Vendée
97.   Law of Maximum
98.   The Law of Suspects
99.   Committee of Public Safety
100.                        Republic of Virtue
101.                        Jacques-René Hébert
102.                        Reign of Terror
103.                        enragés
104.                        Year I
105.                        de-Christianization (mid-page)
106.                        Cult of Reason
107.                        levée en masse
108.                        [Society of] Revolutionary Republic Women

Preconditions!! (as in, what had to happen to make it happen?)

  1. Social
    1. The social pyramid consisted of something like this:
First Estate: clergy - 100,000
/         \
Second Estate: nobility – 400,000
/               \
Bourgeoisie (middle class)
/     urban workers    \
/             peasants             \
Total 3rd Estate: 23,500,000
The overwhelming majority!

As you can see, there was much cause of distress for the Third Estaters. They were the majority, yet had so little political power. First and Second Estate were also exempt from taxes and the tielle, so most of the financial burden rested on the Third Estate.
This social pyramid was called the Ancien Regime, the “Old Regime,” c. 1788.
-          “hobereau” – means sparrowhawk, a small bird with sharp talons. Referred to as some of the lesser nobles who had less power,
-          Nobles had a court system – “Parlements Paris”

  1. Political
    1. All previous kings had been enemies of the nobility and friends of the bourgeoisie, many of whom were richer than the nobility
    2. Louis XIV kept the nobles under close watch in Versailles
    3. Louis XVI was a wimp D=
                                                              i.      The military was made up with nobles
    1. Estates General was made up of 3 separate chambers, one each for the Estates. Each estate had one vote (traditional way of voting) – meaning 500,000 people have two-thirds the power, while 23,500,000 people had to counter that with 1 vote
  1. A Clash??
    1. Some say a revolution occurs when 2 rising classes clash. In this case, it would be the nobility and bourgeoisie, with the bourgeoisie growing at a much more rapid pace.
  2. Economic
    1. There was a drought, and crops failed à no bread, prices inflated, wages stayed the same and couldn’t cover the vast inflation
    2. Peasants couldn’t pay banalities – some lesser nobles (like landlords) would let them go, but under great financial pressure, they put “screws to the peasant!” Hence the name “hobereau.”
    3. Huge debts came from building Versailles and waging war
  3. Enlightenment? Philosophes?
    1. This is certainly a precondition, but their writings were fashionable mostly for the nobility, probably causing the nobility to be the ones to actually start the revolution. However, when the nobles were put under threat by those same ideas, the writings were no longer fashionable, therefore this is not that big of a cause.

The French Revolution Starts!!

1788 – Surprisingly enough, the French Revolution starts with the nobility, creating the Aristocratic Phase.
-          Louis XVI needs money, and was desperate since the nobility (once again) refused to pay taxes unless they had a bigger voice in the government (like they already hadn’t =P)
-          Louis decides to call Estates General, and the Parlements Paris rules for traditional voting – that is, each Estate has one vote.

1789 – Most people think this is when the French Revolution actually starts, disregarding the small Aristocratic Revolution. So starts the Bourgeoisie Phase.
-          Abbe Sieyes publishes “What is the Third Estate?” This book is very much like Rousseau’s idea of the “general will”!! He says, basically, that the third estate is everything, that they are currently nothing in political power, and would like to be something.
-          Going back to Rousseau. R’s points that correlate to Sieyes’: In exchange for some of your rights given up to the “general will,” you will get a little bit of everyone else’s rights too. The general will will CONSTRAIN you if you don’t want to agree with it, so you will be forced to be free.
-          Parlements Paris calls Elections, decided by traditional voting (?)
-          At the same time came a horrible move by the King: he invited all the districts of France to express their personal “grievances.” This was a PR move by the king, but it BACKFIRES, since people actually expect the king to do something since he asked about their troubles. (xD)
-          Also, to appease the Third Estate, Louis gives them 600 representatives instead of the normal 300, which is symbolically more power, but it still only has one vote. People are pleased by it, however.
-          June 13 – A few priests (First Estaters!) sit with the Third Estate in their chamber and sympathize with their troubles. Now there are 607 people in the Third Estate chamber (+ First Estaters)
o   The Third Estate is somewhat emboldened by this move. We are the general will! They meet from now on to make a new constitution in hatred of the 2nd (and a little of the 1st) Estate.
-          To stop this devious act (and somewhat urged on by Marie Antoinette and his advisors, since he is a wimp), Louis locks them out of their chamber so that they can’t meet. They find a way around this, however, and meet on an indoor tennis court, creating The National Assembly and vowed that they will not disband until the new constitution has been written – The Tennis Court Oath.
-          On Junes 22, the King issues the Séance Royale – a proclamation to the National Assembly – “Go back to the Ancien Regime way, and if you don’t, we will stifle you!!” He is urged to stand firm of their revolutionary activity (again by those same people).
o   Two days later, though, Louis XVI mobilizes his troops, and orders 1st and 2nd Estates to sit with the Third Estate, as the National Assembly.

The National Assembly (a subcategory of the Bourgeoisie Phase)

July 11 – Popular Finance Minister Necker is dismissed, because the nobles wanted to tax everyone. This is dangerous, since the current Frances is in a weak financial and economic system. If this hadn’t happened, the French Revolution might not have happened, or at least gotten to the point of insanity.

July 14 – Storming of the Bastille!! (first incident of violence by 3rd Estate)This incident had been a total accident and fluke, but it became (and still is) one of the strongest symbols of the French Revolution. Third Estaters (mostly urban workers) had heard a rumor that Louis had troops coming, so they went to the Bastille to get cannons and gunpowder to protect themselves. The friendly governor said that he needed permission from the King in order to let them do that, so he invited some reps in to bargain, not really getting anywhere. One of the people in the crowd accidentally let down the drawbridge (oops). People then went in and went crazy, killing people, taking the governor prisoner and then killing him, parading their victims heads around town. Some kind souls let the prisoners out – which is why people are led to believe that the Bastille was such a great act, they were letting out political prisoners! The King was bad! – but in reality only 7 prisoners were in there, most for the petty crime of fraud or something ridiculous.
-          Luckily for the Third Estaters, this had the unintended effect of Louis getting scared and withdrawing his troops. The NA got stronger.

Meanwhile, sometime also in July, a separate and rather unrelated incident occurred in the countryside, known as Le Grande Peur – “The Great Fear.” This was a spasm of frustration by the peasants, where they went around destroying tax and money records. After this random outburst, the peasantry remains relatively inactive for the rest of the revolution. (Dr. Q amusingly points out that some historians think that this Great Fear was caused by a fungus called “ergot” in their bread, known to cause hallucinations and various other fun druggie side effects.)

August 14 – Nobles vote to end feudal privileges. Why? This could be two things: a bit of a retreat, or the philosophes influenced them to move France into a more modern age from feudalism. Also, most nobles have fled to Austria (home to Louis’s bonnie wife) to impose their aristocratic arrogance there.

August 27 – The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. This is a product of a new system set by 14 new ground rules – 14 being the Articles of Confederation (an ATTEMPT at an American constitution) and each of the new 13 states’ own constitutions. (the 15th ground rule is the actual US Constitution, which shocked Europe and the philosophes with its amazing brevity and meaningfulness.) The American and British Glorious Revolutions were at the “cutting edge” of revolutionary progress, the Declaration of Independence was more like a list of grievances, so, aware of the Americans’ amazing 15 documents, the Dec. of Rights of Man attempted to TOP all that. xD This was much like a rules card to a board game, as Dr. Q compares it.

September – National Assembly become Constituent Assembly, starts work on Constitution. (All they did was change their name, really.)

October 5 – March on Versailles. Sans-culottes – the sign of the working class. Culottes were knee-high breaches worn only by the aristocracy. The working class going sans-culottes led the march – the 3rd instance of the lower class acting on its own – in find of the Royal Couple.
-          This is reminiscent of a similar revolt of aristocrats in 1648 – when aristocrats barged into little Louis XIV’s bedroom and almost had him assassinated! So Louis XIV had Versailles built in the burbs to avoid this kind of trouble. Ironically, this kind of trouble still found them.
-          Tuilleries (sp?) -- part of the royal complex

November – confiscation of church lands, assignats assigned. Assignats were little $1000 bills, which probably most poor people would never see or benefit from, except instead of being backed by gold, they were backed by land, church land. They needed money, but it was a bad idea. This is not going well for the working class or peasants, since the ones likely to buy the lands were bourgeoisie, who would then sell them to the lower class.
-          “Liberte, egualite, fraternite” was the motto, but fraternite was mostly only what the lower class got D=

Finally we reach…..1790!
-          All year, the Assembly works on a new constitution, but there is a wideing division between the Conservatives and Patriots. It’s easy to storm and bring down a common enemy, but after that they turn on each other with the spirit of “Now what do we do?”
-          June – Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Possibly the WORST mistake ever MADE!! (by the bourgeoisie trying to run the country) The arch-bishops were abolished, and now there is more independence than the Gallican church. There would be no more following of the pope! And new!French priests would be elected, replaced the old ones.
o   However, the poor peasants in the rural areas were confused about which priest to follow, the new one or the old one. They tended  to stay with the old ones, since they like tradition.
o   The government decided to be picky and say, “If you’re not with us, you’re against us!” The want for change by the bourgeoisie clashed with the conservative outlook of the peasants. This DIVIDED everyone!
o   The king, who was a Roman Catholic, was outraged. He thought the revolution could be kept under control, but now, he has his doubts.

1791 – Le Chapelier Laws vs. compagnonnages. Compagnonnages were like working unions for the working class, and the Le Chapelier laws abolished them. Again, we can see that this revolution has little benefit for the peasants and working class.

Meanwhile, the king decided to make his “Flight to Varennes,” having enough with the revolution. They were going to escape to Austria and live the good life while the rest of the country fought it out. They were disguised and fled. However, near Varennes, which was near the border too, they stopped, tired and hungry and wanting a meal, at an inn. Some people apparently recognized them, so the authorities grabbed them and put them under house arrest and later, jail. So ended their “escape attempt.” -__-

August 27 – Declaration of Pillnitz. Leopold II of Prussia (?) didn’t want to get involved, but he was pressured to, so he said, “Okay, I’ll get involved if everyone else gets involved too.” He knew this wouldn’t happen, since he knew that England didn’t want to get involved either. But the French thought this was a REAL threat.

No comments:

Post a Comment