What we covered: Seminar answering all study guide questions. Make sure your thesis is evident and contains specific details. Below are the notes from the second stage of the French Revolution. I place these notes here for a reason...I want you to have a deeper understanding of what we cover. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THIS PLEASE!!
Prepare for an OFS next block. Anything is fairgame up to Napoleon. Finally, finish the remainder of the study guide below. This is due for Wednesday, December 6th. Remember that I tutor on Wednesday after school. You should really come. Bring your questions and we'll go over what you don't understand:
31. Who were the Girondins and the Montagnards [Mountain]? What were their political points of view? Who were their major supporters?
32. What political positions did the centrists [the Plain] take?
33. What groups represented the counter-revolutionary forces in 1792-1794? What characterized the regions in which counter-revolutionary movements emerged?
34. What role did the Jacobin Club play in the "Second" French Revolution?
35. Why could it be said about the French Revolution [and other revolutions in history] that "revolutions devour their children?"
36. Why did the Reign of Terror occur?
37. Which social classes in revolutionary France were most affected by the Terror? least affected? Why?
38. What type of government did Robespierre try to create in 1792-1794? Identify some of the specific changes and programs introduced.
39. How were radical women treated by the Jacobin?
40. How was the French army becoming more egalitarian and democratic by the end of 1793?
We left off today at the:
First Stage of the French Revolution 1789-1792
Constitution of 1791
Establishes a constitutional monarchy with Louis XVI as its figurehead.
Could only succeed with the agreement and cooperation of Louis which he gives.
Established the principles of the Revolution but was a very precarious document.
Louis destroys any chance for its successful implementation by attempting to flee France in June 1791.
Captured and returned to Paris.
Second Stage of the French Revolution (Equality) 1792-1799
Parisian mob of urban workers attack the Tuileries palace August 1792 in the name of the “people”.
Demanded UNIVERSAL manhood suffrage.
Wanted decentralized government with power residing in individual neighborhoods.
Replaces the National Assembly September 1792.
Monarchy officially abolished September 21.
France declared a “Republic” on September 22.
The Reign of Terror
A period of systematic state repression that meted out justice in the name of the people.
French revolutionary politics now becomes highly polarized with two major factions developing.
Girondins: moderates who were concerned with maintaining social order and ending the revolution.
Jacobins: supported by sans-culottes and wanted to continue the revolution.
June 1793: Jacobins with support of the sans-culottes surround the Convention and remove and imprison the Girondins.
Jacobin Meeting House
Committee of Public Safety formed to control the revolution and govern France.
Twelve members headed by: Maxiimilien Robespierre (becomes leader July 1793)
Let terror be the order of the day!
The Guillotine: An Enlightenment Tool?: Remember that an execution by beheading was reserved for nobility until the Revolution. Now all will enjoy the same treatment! Isn't equality grand??
According to Robespierre, the will and rights of the individual were outweighed by the will of the nation.
Robsepierre would interpret and shape the will of the people and hence, the nation.
Committee of Public Safety’s aims were:
1. To regulate the economy
2. To mobilize the military to protect France and the Revolution
3. To carry out an extreme form of revolutionary justice.
Over 40,000 executions in one nine month period along with several hundred thousand more deaths during this period.
Decrees the Cult of the Supreme Being as a state religion to an attempt to eliminate Catholicism.
Jacobins also turn against any further participation in or recognition of women by the Revolution.
Eventually the Committee eliminates not only its opponents but also its supporters and the Revolution turns on them with Robespierre being executed in July 1794 (Thermidor).
Tempering of the Revolution
Terror exacting a tremendous toll -- too radical
Fear of the power of sans-culottes -- minimized
Another change in government organization
Girondists welcomed back and Committee of Public Safety has its power reduced. Jacobin organizations disbanded (White Terror)
Political restructuring -- Constitution of the Year III --
1. rejection of Monarchy and democracy
2. Council of Elders and Council of Five Hundred and The Directory
3. 1799 The Revolution is over!
Historical Significance of the French RevolutionThere exists three strands to in the explanation of the historical significance of the Revolution on the future of the West.
1. The Revolution marks a victory of Democracy over Tyranny(?) The Revolution brought about a new political culture based on the nation, citizen, representative democracy, and a justification in the inherent good of politics.
2. The Revolution marks a Victory of Capitalism over Feudalism, Bourgeoisie over Nobility.
3. The Revolution marked the victory of the Modern State over Absolutism. A more bureaucratic and modern state.