The Long Chess Match between the United States and the Soviet Union...


AP Euro January 18th

AP Notes we took in class and SUGGESTED homework...what does that mean, exactly?  You don't have to do this homework, but I cannot be more emphatic when I suggest you do it!!
The following information can be found in chapters 23, 24, and 25

You don’t have to do this for Friday, but you REALLY might want to do it!  The follrowing information can be found in chapters 23, 24, and 25


Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.

___________ 1. The writer and poet influenced by German romanticism who wrote novels and

poems based on romantic history, particularly that of Scotland.

___________ 2. The nineteenth-century romantic writer who is famous for his fascination with

fantastic characters, (including his “human gargoyle”), strange settings, and

human emotion.

__________ 3. The greatest master of romantic music.

__________ 4. Peace settlement following the Napoleonic Wars.

_________ 5. Austrian minister who was the most important advocate of conservatism in the

decades following the Napoleonic Wars.

_________ 6. Self-appointed group of German middle-class liberals who sought to unify

Germany via a written constitution and the support of Prussia.

_________ 7. System through which the members of the Quadruple Alliance sought to

maintain a balance of power while settling disputes between countries via

international conferences.

__________ 8. Liberal constitution in France that established a constitutional monarchy after

the defeat of Napoleon.

__________ 9. Liberal organization in England that sought repeal of the notorious Corn Laws.

__________ 10. Tory bill passed by Parliament in 1847 to limit the workday for women and


__________ 11. Tragic incident in 1819 where protesters of the Corn Laws were slaughtered by

British authorities.

__________ 12. Harsh measures imposed by Metternich throughout the German Confederation

against liberals.

McKay Ch. 23 Homework Packet Page 6

D. Matching People, Places, and Events

Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by

inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

___ 1. Louis Napoleon A. Mid-nineteenth-century Frenchman, and author of

Organization of Work, who believed that the right to work

was sacred and should be guaranteed by the state.

___ 2. Eugène Delacroix B. English romantic artist who depicted nature’s power and


___ 3. Louis Blanc C. German philosopher who developed the dialectic of

“thesis,” “anti-thesis,” and “synthesis.”

___ 4. Frederick William IV D. English economist who believed that population pressures

would keep wages very low for most workers.

___ 5. Louis Philippe E. French romantic painter whose Raft of Medusa

demonstrates natures awesome power and


___ 6. Alexander I F. German pastor and philosopher that argued that every

national group has its own particular spirit and genius.

___ 7. Joseph M. W. Turner G. English romantic poet who believed that nature has the

ability to elevate and instruct.

___ 8. William Wordsworth H. New president of France in 1848 elected after the “June


___ 9. John Constable I. Scottish philosopher whose book, Wealth of Nations,

became essentially the “bible” of free-market capitalism.

___ 10. Georg Hegel J. Russian czar who south compensation due to the

Napoleonic wars, a strong Congress System, and a small

Polish kingdom to Russia’s west.

___ 11. Adam Smith K. Hungarian revolutionary who led the failed military

attempt to gain Hungarian independence from Austria.

L. English romantic painter who produced gentle landscapes

and people in harmony with their environment.

M. Prussian monarch who refused to accept “the crown from

the gutter.”

N. New “bourgeois king” of France in 1830 that accepted the

Constitutional Charter of 1814 and its principles.

O. The romantic painter whose masterpiece was Liberty

D. Matching People, Places, and Events

Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by

inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

___ 1. Jeremy Bentham A. City planner who dramatically improved Paris via wider

boulevards, increased parks, and a rebuilt city center.

___ 2. Joseph Lister B. Reformer who developed the philosophy of utilitarianism

that influenced future reformers.

___ 3. Leo Tolstoy C. Scientist who codified the rules of chemistry in the

periodic law and the periodic table.

___ 4. Louis Pasteur D. Scientist who believed that life, and the earth itself had


___ 5. Baron Georges Hausmann E. Most important French writer of the realist movement

___ 6. Charles Darwin F. Most significant Russian realist author who wrote the

masterpiece War and Peace

___ 7. Charles Lyell G. Scientist who believed that infection could be controlled

by the application of the “antiseptic principle.”

___ 8. Edwin Chadwick H. Scientist whose studies on electromagnetism resulted in the

first generator and opened the way for the application of

electricity in motors, lights and streetcars.

___ 9. Dmitri Mendeleev I. Public health reformer whose “sanitary idea” led to a

cleaner urban environment.

___ 10. Michael Faraday J. Scientist whose “germ theory” resulted in the decrease in

the spread of sickness.

___ 11. Émile Zola K. Scientist who concluded that all life gradually emerged

from common roots as a result of the struggle to survive

___ 12. Herbert Spencer K. Social Darwinist who believed that struggles within human

society was determined by “survival of the fittest

C. Identification

Supply the correct identification for each numbered description.

___________ 1. Term used to identify the compromise in 1867 that created a dual monarchy in

the Austro-Hungarian Empire in which Hungary had its own king and

governed its own domestic affairs.

__________ 2. Ruler of Sardinia-Piedmont that later became the king of a united Italy.

__________ 3. The most influential person in German history in the nineteenth century.

_________ 4. Leader of the Redshirts who “liberated” the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

_________ 5. Proclamation issued by Pope Pius IX that condemned liberalism and Italian


__________ 6. 1905 tragic event in Russia where troops opened fire on peaceful workers and

their families.

__________ 7. Prussian Protestant nobles who formed the backbone of the Conservative party

(and who earlier had become the officer core of the Prussian military).

McKay Ch. 25 Homework Packet Page 5

__________ 8. Radical revolutionary group in Paris that fought a short civil-war against the

National Assembly, resulting in the deaths of 20,000 people.

__________ 9. Important reform bill in Britain that gave suffrage to nearly all adult males.

D. Matching People, Places, and Events

Match the person, place, or event in the left column with the proper description in the right column by

inserting the correct letter on the blank line.

___ 1. Adolph Thiers A. Young German emperor who forced Bismarck to resign

due to the latter’s attempt to outlaw the Social Democratic


___ 2. Karl Marx B. Important Zionist leader who sought a homeland for Jews.

___ 3. Leon Gambetta C. Whig prime minister in Britain who favored Irish Home


___ 4. Emile Zola D. Author of On Liberty whose views on protecting the

individual and minorities became the basis for modern


___ 5. David Lloyd George E. Russian tsar who emancipated the serfs in 1861

___ 6. Karl Lueger F. Late-nineteenth-century mayor of Vienna whose anti-

Semitic views influenced Adolf Hitler

___ 7. John Stuart Mill G. French master of mass politics who established absolute

parliamentary supremacy in the late 1870s.

___ 8. Benjamin Disraeli H. Author of the Communist Manifesto who became the

“father” of communist thought in the 19th century.

___ 9. William Gladstone I. Socialist revisionist who advocated use of the political

system to make socialist gains rather than revolution.

___ 10. Jules Ferry J. Pre-1850 idealistic Italian patriot who failed to secure

Italian unification in the Revolution of 1848.

___ 11. William II K. British prime minister whose “leap in the dark” in

supporting the Reform Bill of 1867 increased male

suffrage for middle-class males and some skilled workers

___ 12. Theodore Herzl L. First president of the French Third Republic and leader

who earlier oversaw the defeat of the Paris Commune in


___ 13. Edward Bernstein M. Famous realist author who came to the support of Alfred


___ 14. Alexander II. N. Leader of the Liberal Party in England who established a

tax on the rich in order to pay for new social welfare


___ 15. Mazzini O. French moderate republican who helped establish free

compulsory elementary education for girls and boys.

McKay Ch. 25 Homework Packet Page 6

E. Geography

Using Map 25.1 in the textbook as a reference answer the following questions:

1. By the end of 1860, which seven regions/states were part of the emerging unified Italy?

_____________________ ________________________ _________________________

____________________ _________________________ _________________________


2. Which were the last two states to join unified Italy? ___________________ ___________________

Using Map 25.2 in the textbook as a reference answer the following questions:

3. Which two French regions did Germany gain due to war? ______________ _______________

4. Which state in the new united Germany had the largest land area prior to unification? ____________

5. Which was the largest German state gained by the German Empire in 1871? ___________________

Springtime of the Peoples
An Aid to Understanding the Significance of the European Revolutions of 1848
Why violent revolution doesn’t take place in Britain
Chartism (1830s & 1840s)
Working-class radicals
Change from within the political system
Six points of the Charter
Universal manhood suffrage
Equal electoral districts
No property qualification for MPs
Payment for MPs
Annual parliaments
Secret ballot
Presentation of Charter three times (1839, 1842, 1848)
Ultimate failure of the Charter
Internal Divisions
Role of Government to stamp out Chartist Factions
Revolutions in Europe
Meternich flees the revolution
Ferdinand deposed, choice of his nephew Franz Joseph II (1848-1916)
Hungarian revolt suppressed with Russian help
Nicholas I, “the policeman of Europe.”
Unification of German States Large Germany (Grossdeutsch), or Little Germany (Kleindeutsch)
Frankfort Parliament offers imperial crown to Prussian king
Italy: Revolts in Naples, Papal States, Tuscany, Venice
Goal: Unification under the House of Savoy
Austrians reassert control in Tuscany & Venetia
Revolution in Berlin (Prussia)
3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in the Rhineland
15 March 1848 -- Revolutionaries revolted in Berlin, demanding liberal democratic reforms.
King of Prussia (Frederick William IV) made concessions to the revolutionaries.
Soon afterwards, the other leaders of German states also gave their support for liberal democratic & nationalist reforms.
Believing that the kings & princes were committed to a united Germany, bourgeois liberal leaders began to meet in Frankfurt to write a new constitution for a united Germany. (Frankfurt Parliament)
Supported liberal democracy
Little Germany or Large Germany?
Supported a constitutional monarchy (under the leadership of the King of Prussia) & a united Germany without Austria.
Revolution in the Austrian (Hapbsurg) Empire
While many revolutionaries advocated liberalism, most were nationalists.
Calls for liberal democracy centered in Vienna
12 March 1848, Revolution broke out in Vienna
Nationalist Revolutions
Czechs, Hungarians, & Italians, in particular, rejected the dominance of a foreign, German-speaking, ruler.
Hungarian (Magyar) & Czech Revolutions
Most powerful of the minorities & the most successful of the revolutionaries.
Louis (Lajos) Kossuth (1802-1894)
3 March 1848 – Revolution broke out in Budapest
Frightened Metternich, who quickly agreed to allow the Hungarians to establish a liberal democratic parliament.
March Laws: Representation, freedom of the press, religious freedom, equal justice before the law, taxation of the nobility.
May 1848 – Czechs revolted, demanding political autonomy similar to what the Hungarians had received.
Retreat of the Hapsburg Empire
Seeing what was happening throughout Europe, the Austrian Emperor (Ferdinand I) began to grant liberal concessions.
March 1848 – King dismissed Metternich
25 April 1848 – King agreed to a constitutional monarchy
Granted Universal manhood suffrage
Emancipated the serfs
15 May 1848 – Another wave of demonstrations broke out in Vienna
May 17 1848 – Emperor fled to Innsbruck (Austria)
Beginning in the summer of 1848, Austria reasserted her dominance over the revolutionaries.
June 1848 – Emperor’s army crushed the Czech revolution
October 1848 – Emperor crushed the revolt in Vienna.
September 1848 1848 – Emperor sent troops into Hungary to suppress the revolution.
December 1948 – Emperor abdicated in favor of his nephew (Francis Joseph I) who was determined to suppress these revolutions.
March 1849 – Austrian forces conquered Hungary & imposed military rule.
June 1849 – Austrian joins with Prussia to crush revolutions in the Rhineland, Saxony, & Bavaria.
Revolution in Italy
January & February 1848 – Revolts erupted in Naples & Turin
March 1848 – Guerra Santa (Holy War)
22 March 1848 – Revolution broke out & Venetian Republic was established.
Came under the leadership of Garibaldi
March 1848 – Papal States were given a constitution
February 1849 – Roman Republic proclaimed under the leadership of Mazzini.
Goals: Liberalism & National Unification
Led by Charles Albert (King of Piedmont-Sardinia)
23 March 1848 – Piedmont-Sardina declared war on Austria
New Republics: Venice, Tuscany, & Rome
June 1848 – Austrians defeated Piedmont-Sardinia. Austrians re-established control over Lombardy & Venetia, destroying the republics.
Why do the Revolutions Fail?
Lasting Significance of 1848
Giuseppe Mazzini – “The Heart”

Grassroots unification
Italian Risorgimento
Camillo di Cavour – “The Brain”
Prime Minister of Sardinia
A liberal – wanted to make Sardinia a model of progress, efficiency, and fair government for others to admire
Tried to improve the economy
Camillo di Cavour – “The Brain”
Didn’t idealize war, but willing to use war to unify Italy – Crimean War (1855-1856)
Reorganized and strengthened Sardinian army
Main architect of Italian unification
Guisseppe Garibaldi – “The Sword”
“Hero of Two Worlds”
Red Shirts
King Victor Emmanuel II, House of Savoy
Only native Italian monarch in Italy
Italian Unification Timeline
Otto von Bismarck: The Founding of A German Empire
Nationalism Comes to Germany
France and Russia had long-standing policy of keeping Germany weak and divided
Nationalism came to Germany, but different from Italy
Superiority to Slavs
Independent of West – own particular way of life and political system
Were not widespread ideas of individual liberty – tended to glorify the state
Revolution of 1848 in Germany
Series of revolutions in German states
Frankfurt Parliament of 1848
Offered crown of unified Germany to Frederick William IV
Turned it down – would not accept crown “from the gutter”
German states restored
Path to Unification
“Blood and Iron”
ZOLLVEREIN a customs union of German states that did not include Austria.
REALPOLITIK, which means “realism" – do what is necessary, not what is right or moral
Seven Weeks' War
Franco-Prussian War
EMS TELEGRAM: Queen Isabella France opposed the choice of a Prussian Hohenzollern prince to replace Isabella.
Napoleon III demanded in July 1870 that KING WILHELM OF PRUSSIA also oppose it.
Wilhelm was reluctant to start trouble with France, so he crafted a polite, diplomatic response, which one of his officials conveyed to Bismarck.
Bismarck edited the king's words to create the impression that the French ambassador and King Wilhelm had traded diplomatic insults. France thus declared war on Prussia on July 19, 1870.
France quickly defeated, GERMAN EMPIRE PROCLAIMED
German Unification Timeline

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