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The Long Chess Match between the United States and the Soviet Union...

4/29/2011

AP Euro ESSAY HELP

Please have a weekend filled of nothing but reading, writing and analyzing.  There are tutoring sessions after school on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th.  To fail to prepare is to prepare to fail.
Peanut says study...or he'll be getting ninja all over you.
Collected AP European History essays


Below are essay questions collected from about 1985 to 2010 arranged roughly in chronological order.

COLLECTED ESSAY QUESTIONS FROM PAST AP TESTS to 2010 (ANSWER) denotes that an answer is available from ETS.



RENAISSANCE

1. To what extent is the term “Renaissance” a valid concept for a distinct period in early modern European history? (1985)



2. Explain the ways in which Italian Renaissance humanism transformed ideas about the individual’s role in society. (1994)



3. Discuss how Renaissance ideas are expressed in the Italian art of the period, referring to specific works and artists. (1998)



4. “In the fifteenth century, European society was still centered on the Mediterranean region, but by the end of the seventeenth century, the focus of Europe had shifted north.”

Identify and analyze the economic developments between 1450 and 1700 that helped bring about this shift. (1989)



5. Analyze the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. Use at least THREE specific works to support your analysis.



6. Using examples from at least two different states, analyze the key features of the “new monarchies” and the factors responsible for their rise in the period 1450 to 1550.



7. To what extent and in what ways did women participate in the Renaissance? (2003 B)



8. Evaluate the changes and continuities in women’s public roles during the Renaissance. (2009B #2)



9. Compare and contrast the Northern and Italian Renaissance.





















10. Analyze the ways in which the two works above, Perugino’s Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter (1481 – 1483) on the left, and Michelangelo’s David (1501 – 1504) on the right, represent the values of Italian Renaissance culture. (2010B #4)



































REFORMATION

11. “The Reformation was a rejection of the secular spirit of the Italian Renaissance.”

Defend or refute this statement using specific examples from sixteenth century Europe. (1986)

12. “Luther was both a revolutionary and a conservative.”

Evaluate this statement with respect to Luther’s responses to the political and social questions of his day. (1983)

13. Discuss the political and social consequences of the Protestant Reformation in the first half of the sixteenth century (2001 #4)



14. Assess the extent to which the Protestant Reformation promoted new expectations about social roles in the sixteenth century. Refer to at least two social groups in your response. (1996)



15. Compare and contrast the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order. (1995)



16. Compare and contrast the motives and actions of Martin Luther in the German states and King Henry VIII in England in bringing about religious change during the Reformation. [2005 #4]

17. Describe and analyze the ways in which the Roman Catholics defended their faith against the Protestant Reformation. (1991)



18. Compare and contrast the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic Reformation of the sixteenth century regarding the reform of both religious doctrines and religious practices. (1998)



19. The pictures below and on the next page show the interiors of a Protestant church and a Roman Catholic Church as each appeared in the first half of the seventeenth century. Using these pictures as a starting point, explain how each of these interiors reflect the differing theologies and religious practices of Protestantism and Catholicism at that time. (1992) 2 pictures



20. What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the sixteenth century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation? (1985)



21. “The Protestant Reformation was primarily an economic event.”

By describing and determining the relative importance of the economic, political, and religious causes of the Protestant Reformation, defend or refute this statement. (1987)

22. Analyze the aims, methods, and degree of success of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in the 16th century. (2006 #3)

23. How and to what extent did the methods and ideals of Renaissance humanism contribute to the Protestant Reformation? (2006 B #5)

24. Evaluate the influence of Renaissance humanism on Catholic reforms and the Protestant Reformation. (2007 B #2)

25. Describe and analyze the advantages and disadvantages that the Protestant Reformation presented to women. (Practice Exam)

26. Analyze the impacts of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation) on the social order of sixteenth-century Europe. (2009B #3)

27. Analyze the various Protestant views of the relationship between church and state in the period circa 1500 – 1700. (2010 #3)



RELIGIOUS WARS AND EXPLORATION

28. Compare and contrast the religious policies of TWO of the following:

Elizabeth I of England

Catherine de Médicis of France

Isabella I of Spain [2002 #2]



29. Describe and analyze the ways in which the development of printing altered both the culture and the religion of Europe during the period 1450-1600. (1988)



30. In 1519 Charles of Hapsburg became Charles V, Holy Roman emperor. Discuss and analyze the political, social, and religious problems he faced over the course of his imperial reign (1519-1556). (1990)



31. “Leadership determines the fate of the country”;

Evaluate this quotation in terms of Spain’s experience under Phillip II. (2000 #3)

32. Using examples from at least two different states, analyze the key features of the “new monarchies” and the factors responsible for their rise in the period from 1450 to 1550. [2005 #3]

33. Focusing on the period before 1600, describe and analyze the cultural and economic interactions between Europe and the Western Hemisphere as a result of the Spanish and Portuguese exploration and settlement. (1997)



34. Account for the growth and decline of European witch hunts in the period 1500 to 1650. [2005B #2]

35. Evaluate the relative importance of the religious rivalries and dynastic ambitions that shaped the course and results of the Thirty Years’ War. (1981)



36. Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War (1618 – 1648) represented a turning point in European history. (2009 #6)



37. Analyze the factors that prevented the development of a unified German state in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (2007 #5)



38. Analyze the reasons for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire as a force in European politics in the period 1517 to 1648. (2008 B #5)



39. Discuss the relationship between politics and religion by examining the wars of religion. Choose TWO specific examples from the following:

Dutch Revolt

French Wars of Religion

English Civil War

Thirty Years’ War (1999)





40. Compare and contrast the economic factors responsible for the decline of Spain with the economic factors responsible for the decline of the Dutch Republic by the end of the seventeenth century. (2009 #5) ***can be used in Unit 2 or Unit 3



41. Analyze the changes in the European economy from about 1450 to 1700 brought about by the voyages of exploration and colonization. (1992) (ANSWER)



42. Explain how advances in learning and technology influenced fifteenth- and sixteenth-century European exploration and trade. (2003 #4)

43. Analyze the effects of the Columbian exchange (the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the New World) on the population and economy of Europe in the period 1550 to 1700. (2006 #4)



ABSOLUTISM AND CONSTITUTIONALISM



44. In the seventeenth century, what political conditions accounted for the increased power of both the Parliament in England and the monarchy in France? (1982)



45. In the seventeenth century England displayed little political stability, yet by the end of the century England had laid the foundations for constitutional monarchy. What were the political, social, economic, and religious factors and events that ultimately led to the Glorious Revolution?

46. Analyze the ways in which both the theory and practice of monarchy evolved in England from 1603 (the death of Elizabeth I) to 1688-1689 (the Glorious Revolution). (1987)



47. Describe and analyze the changes in the role of Parliament in English politics between the succession of James I and the Glorious Revolution. (1993)



48. “In seventeenth-century England the aristocracy lost its privileges but retained its power; in seventeenth-century France the aristocracy retained its privileges but lost its power.”

Assess the accuracy of this statement with respect to political events and social developments in the countries in the seventeenth century. (1985)



49. In what ways and to what extend did absolutism affect the power and status of the European nobility in the period 1650 – 1750? Use examples from at least TWO countries. (2002 #5)



50. Analyze the major ways through which Tsar Peter the Great (1689-1725) sought to reform his society and its institutions in order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe.(1985)



51. Analyze the influence of the theory of mercantilism on the domestic and foreign policies of France, 1600-1715. (1995)



52. Louis XIV declared his goal was “one king, one law, one faith.”

Analyze the methods the king used to achieve this objective and discuss the extent to which he was successful. (2003 #3)



53. Describe and analyze the success of absolutism during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Western and Eastern Europe, using examples from at least three different countries. (Practice Exam)



54. Describe and analyze how overseas expansion by European states affected global trade and international relations from 1600 to 1715. (2001 #3)



55. Analyze at least TWO factors that account for the rise and TWO factors that explain the decline of witchcraft persecution and trials in Europe in the period from 1580 to 1750. [2002 #3]

56. Analyze the military, political, and social factors that account for the rise of Prussia between 1640 and 1786. (1991)



57. Analyze the intellectual foundations of religious toleration in 18th century Europe. (2006 B#6)



58. Compare and contrast the economic factors responsible for the decline of Spain with the economic factors responsible for the decline of the Dutch Republic by the end of the seventeenth century. (2009 #5) ***can be used in Unit 2 or Unit 3



59. Explain the reasons for the rise of the Netherlands as a leading commercial power in the period 1550 – 1650. [2004B #7]



60. Analyze the various effects of the expansion of the Atlantic trade on the economy of Western Europe in the period circa 1450 – 1700. (2010 #4) ***can be used in Unit 3 or 4.





61. In the Seventeenth Century, how did England and the Dutch Republic compete successfully with France and Spain for control of overseas territory and trade? (1982)







Cuyp, The Maas River at Dordrech, c1650 Johannes Vermeer, Young Woman with a Water Pitcher, c. 1665

62. Using the two Dutch paintings above and your historical knowledge of the period, discuss how the paintings reflect the economy and culture of the Netherlands in the seventeenth century. (2007 B #4)



63. Compare and contrast the economic and social development of Russia with that of the Netherlands in the period 1600 – 1725. (2010B #2)



SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION & ENLIGHTENMENT



64. How and to what extent did the Commercial Revolution transform the European economy and diplomatic balance of power in the period from 1650 to 1763? (2006 B#2)

65. Analyze the impacts of the major developments of the Commercial Revolution on Europe’s economy and society in the period 1650 to 1789. (2009B #4)



66. Analyze the various effects of the expansion of the Atlantic trade on the economy of Western Europe in the period circa 1450 – 1700. (2010 #4) ***can be used in Unit 3 or 4.



67. Analyze how Galileo, Descartes, and Newton altered traditional interpretations of nature and challenged traditional sources of knowledge. (2009 #7)



68. Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1763. (2004 #6)



69. Explain the development of the scientific method in the seventeenth century and the impact of scientific thinking on traditional sources of authority. (2000 #7)



70. In what ways did Enlightenment thinkers build on or make use of the ideas of Newton and Locke? (1983)



71. Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in the debate in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper role of government in the economy. Give specific examples. (1992)



72. Machiavelli suggests that a ruler should behave both “like a lion” and “like a fox.” Analyze the policies of TWO of the following European rulers, indicating the degree to which they successfully followed Machiavelli’s suggestion. (1999)

Choose two:

Henry IV of France

Elizabeth I of England

Catherine the Great of Russia

Frederick II of Prussia



73. Analyze the ways in which European monarchs used both the arts and the sciences to enhance state power in the period circa 1500 – 1800. (2010 #2)



74. Compare and contrast the views of Machiavelli and Rousseau on human nature and the relationship between government and the governed. (1984)



75. Compare and contrast the cultural values of the Enlightenment with those of the sixteenth-century Northern Renaissance.(1982)



76. Describe the new astronomy of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and analyze the ways in which it changed scientific thought and methods. (1991)



77. How did the developments in scientific thought from Copernicus to Newton create a new conception of the universe and humanity’s place in it? (1984)



78. Analyze the ways in which Enlightenment thought addressed religious beliefs and social issues in the eighteenth century. (1994)



79. To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in the eighteenth-century? Illustrate your answer with references to specific individuals and their works. (1998)



80. “In the eighteenth century, people turned to the new science for a better understanding of the social and economic problems of the day.”

Assess the validity of this statement by using specific examples from the Enlightenment era. (1988)

81. Analyze the ways in which specific intellectual and scientific developments of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries contributed to the emergence of the religious outlook known as “Deism.” (1982)

82. Describe and analyze the influence of the Enlightenment on both elite culture and popular culture in the eighteenth century. (2003 #4)



83. Analyze the impact to TWO cultural and/or technological developments on European education in the period 1450 to 1650. (2008 B #6)



84. Compare and contrast the political ideas of Hobbes and Locke. (2008 B #7)



85. Analyze the ways in which the ideas of seventeenth-century thinkers John Locke and Isaac Newton contributed to the ideas of eighteenth-century Enlightenment thinkers. (2010B #6)



86. Between 1450 and 1800, many women gained power as rulers, some as reigning queens, others as regents. Identify two such powerful women and discus how issues of gender, such as marriage and reproduction, influenced their ability to obtain and exercise power. (1994)



87. Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform from the period of Peter the Great (1689 – 1725) through Catherine the Great (1762 – 1796). (2008 #2)



88. Analyze the extent to which Frederick the Great of Prussia and Joseph II of Austria advanced and did not advance Enlightenment ideals during their reigns. (2009 #4)



89. Identify features of the eighteenth-century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences. [2003 #2]

90. Describe and analyze the economic, cultural, and social changes that led to and sustained Europe’s rapid population growth in the period from approximately 1650-1800. (1997)



91. Describe and analyze the changes that led to Europe’s rapid population growth in the eighteenth century. (2008 #3)



92. Identify the various assumptions about children in early modern Europe, and analyze how these assumptions affected child-rearing practices. [DBQ 2007]



93. Analyze the economic, technological, and institutional factors responsible for Western Europe’s domination of world trade from 1650 to 1800. [2005 #7]

94. Britain and France were engaged in a geopolitical and economic rivalry, during the eighteenth century. Identify the factors that contributed to this rivalry, and assess the results for both countries over the period 1689 – 1789. (2007 #6)



FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEONIC ERA



95. To what extent and in what ways was the French Revolution during the period 1789 through the Reign of Terror (1794) an attempt to create a government based on enlightenment ideals? (1986) (ANSWER)



96. How and to what extent did Enlightenment ideas about religion and society shape the policies of the French Revolution in the period 1789 to 1799? (2003 #7)

97. “The essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful, rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges.”

Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1789. (1984) (ANSWER)

98. Identify the grievances of the groups that made up the Third Estate in France on the eve of the French Revolution, and analyze the extent to which ONE of these groups was able to address its grievances in the period 1789 – 1799. (2007 #7)



99. Identify the major social groups in France on the eve of the 1789 Revolution. Assess the extent to which their aspirations were achieved in the period from the meeting of the Estates-General (1789) to the declaration of the republic (September 1792). (1996)



100. “Political leaders committed to radical or extremist goals often exert authoritarian control in the name of higher values.”

Support or refute this statement with reference to the political and cultural policies of Robespierre during the French Revolution. (1989)



101. Analyze the ways in which the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period (1789 – 1815) led people to challenge Enlightenment views of society, politics, and human nature. (2008 #7)



102. “Napoleon was a child of the Enlightenment.”

Assess the validity of the statement above. Use examples referring both to specific aspects of the Enlightenment and to Napoleon’s policies and attitudes. (1992) (ANSWER)



103. “Napoleon I is sometimes called the greatest enlightened despot.”

Evaluate this assessment in terms of Napoleon I’s policies and accomplishments. Be sure to include a definition of enlightened despotism in your answer. (1981) (ANSWER)



104. Assess the ways in which women participated in and influenced TWO of the following:

The Renaissance

The Reformation

The French Revolution (2010B #3)



INDUSTRIAL AND SOCIAL REVOLUTION



105. Analyze artistic and literary responses to industrialization over the course of the nineteenth century. (2009B #5)



106. Evaluate the effectiveness of the collective responses by workers to industrialization in Western Europe during the course of the nineteenth century. (1986)



107. Identify the social and economic factors in pre-industrial England that explain why England was the first country to industrialize. (1983) (ANSWER)



108. Discuss three developments that enabled Great Britain to achieve a dominant economic position between 1700 and 1830. (2000)



109. Analyze the problems and opportunities associated with the rapid urbanization of western Europe in the nineteenth century. (2007 #4)

110. Analyze how economic and social developments affected women in England in the period from 1700 to 1850. [2005 #2]

111. Between 1750 and 1850 more and more Western Europeans were employed in cottage industry and in factory production. Analyze how these two types of employment affected employer-employee relations, working conditions, family relations, and the standard of living during this period. (1989)



112. Discuss the impact of industrialization and urbanization on working-class families from 1750 to 1900. [2005B #4]

113. Describe and analyze the issues and ideas in the debate in Europe between 1750 and 1846 over the proper role of government in the economy. Give specific examples. (1992)



114. Between 1815 and 1848 the condition of the laboring classes and the problem of political stability were critical issues in England. Describe and analyze the reforms that social critics and politicians proposed to solve these problems.(1991)



115. “The Industrial Revolution diminished the quality of life of the common person in Europe.”

Defend or refute this statement.

116. In what ways did the writings of Karl Marx draw on the Enlightenment concepts of progress, natural law, and reason? (1987)



117. Compare and contrast Enlightenment and Romantic views of the relationship between God and the individual. [2005B #3]

118. To what extent did Romanticism challenge Enlightenment views of Human beings and of the natural world? [2004B #3]

119. Discuss how the structures shown above reflect the societies and cultures that produced them. Picture: Arch of Triumph, Paris 1806-1836 and the Crystal Palace, London, 1850-1851. (2006 B)



-ISMS, inc. NATIONALISM, IMPERIALISM

120. Analyze three examples of the relationship between Romanticism and nationalism before 1850. (2003 #6)



121. Identify and explain the similarities and differences between socialism and liberalism in nineteenth-century Europe.(1982)



122. “In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European governments were conservative.”

To what extent is the quotation above an accurate statement? Use specific examples from at least TWO countries. (2007 B #6)



123. Describe and compare the differences among Utopian socialists, Karl Marx, and Revisionist socialists in their critiques of nineteenth-century European economy and society.(1988) (ANSWER)





124. Man for the field and woman for the hearth;

Man for the sword and for the needle she;

Man with the head and woman with the heart;

Man to command woman to obey.

How accurately do the lines of poetry above reflect gender roles for European men and women in the late nineteenth century? (2000)



125. European women’s lives changed in the course of the nineteenth-century politically, economically, and socially. Identify and explain the reasons for those changes. (2008 #5)



126. To what extent did Marx and Freud each challenge the nineteenth-century liberal belief in rationality and progress? (1985) (ANSWER)





127. Evaluate how the ideas of Charles Darwin and Sigmund Freud challenged the Enlightenment assumptions about human behavior and the role of reason. (2000)



128. Analyze the shifts in the European balance of power in the period between 1763 and 1848. [2004B #2]



129. In February 1848, the middle classes and workers in France joined to overthrow the government of Louis Phillipe. By June the two groups were at odds in their political, economic, and social thinking. Analyze what transpired to divide the groups and describe the consequences for French politics.(1990)



130. Discuss some of the ways in which Romantic artists, musicians, and writers responded to political and socioeconomic conditions in the period from 1800 to 1850. Document your response with specific examples from discussions of at least two of the three disciplines: visual arts, music, and literature. (1997)



131. Describe the physical transformation of European cities in the second half of the nineteenth century and analyze the social consequences of the transformation. (1996)



132. Analyze how and why western European attitudes toward children and child-rearing changed in the period from 1750 to 1900. (2001 #2)



133. Analyze what differences in leisure activities, shown in the two paintings below, reflect about the social life of the peasants in the sixteenth century and of urban dwellers in the nineteenth century. (1990) (ANSWER) 2 pictures



134. Analyze and compare the effects of nationalism on Italian and Austro-Hungarian policies between 1815 and 1914? (1989)



135. Contrast the impact of nationalism in Germany and the Austrian Empire from 1848 to 1914. [2004A -- #7]



136. Analyze the effects of nationalism on the Austrian Empire in the period 1815 to 1914. (2009B #7)



137. Compare and contrast how TWO of the following states attempted to hold together their empires in the period circa 1850 – 1914.

Austria-Hungary

Russia

Ottoman Empire (2010 #5)



138. Analyze the major social, political, and technological changes that took place in European warfare between 1789 and 1918. (1981)



139. To what extent did the emancipation of Russian serfs and other reforms in the nineteenth century contribute to the modernization of Russia before the First World War? (1984)



140. To what extent did the structure of the Russian government and society affect its economic development in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? (2007 B #5)



141. Describe the steps taken between 1832 and 1918 to extend the suffrage in England. What groups and movements contributed to the extension of the vote? (1982) (ANSWER)



142. Compare and contrast the degree of success of treaties negotiated in Vienna (1814-1815) and Versailles (1919) in achieving European stability. (1999)



143. Assess the extent to which the unification of Germany under Bismarck led to authoritarian government there between 1871 and 1914. (1988) (ANSWER)



144. Compare and contrast the foreign policy goals and achievements of Metternich (1815 -- 1848) and Bismarck (1862 -- 1890). [2002 #7]



145. Historians speak of the rise of mass politics in the period from 1880 to 1914. Define this phenomenon and analyze its effects on European politics in this period. [2005 #5]



146. In the period 1815-1900, political liberalization progressed much further in Western Europe than in Russia. Analyze the social and economic reasons for this difference. (2006 #6)

147. Analyze anti-Semitism in Europe from the Dreyfus affair in the 1890s to 1939. (2006)B



148. Analyze the major factors responsible for the rise of anti-Semitism in nineteenth-century Europe. (2008 #6)



149. Compare and contrast the relationship between the artist and society in the Renaissance/Reformation period to the relationship between the artist and society in the late 19th century. (2006 #2)



150. Analyze the similarities and differences in the methods used by Cavour and Bismarck to bring about the unification of Italy and Germany, respectively. (2008 B #4)



151. Analyze the ways in which TWO of the following groups challenged British liberalism between 1880 and 1914. (2008 B #3)

Feminists

Irish nationalists

Socialists



152. Analyze the development of the various forms of European socialism in the 1800s. (2010B #7)

153. Referring to specific individuals or works, discuss the ways in which TWO of the following expressed the concept of nationalism in the nineteenth century.

Artists

Composers

Writers

(2007 B #3)



154. Compare and contrast the mercantilist policies of seventeenth-century Western European governments with economic intervention by Western European governments from the mid-nineteenth century to 1914. (Practice Exam)



155. Analyze the major economic and political factors that allowed for the unification of Germany in the late nineteenth century. (Practice Exam)



IMPERIALISM

156. Analyze attitudes toward and evaluate the motivations behind the European acquisition of African colonies in the period 1880 to 1914. (2009B DBQ)

157. Analyze the policies of three European colonial powers regarding Africa between 1871 and 1914. (1997)



158. Compare and contrast the motives for European overseas expansion during the Age of Discovery (fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and during the Age of New Imperialism (nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.) (1982) (ANSWER)



159. How and in what ways were economic and political factors responsible for intensifying European imperialist activity in Africa from the mid-nineteenth century to the beginning of the First World War? (1990)









WORLD WAR I



160. Analyze the impact of the First World War on European culture and society in the interwar period (1919 – 1939). [2002 #4]



161. Analyze and assess the extent to which the First World War accelerated European social change in such areas as work, sex roles, and government involvement in everyday life. (1988) (ANSWER)



162. Analyze the participation of European women in the economy and in politics form 1914 to 1939. Use examples from at least TWO countries. [2004B -- #5]

163. Discuss and analyze the political and economic reasons for the failure of parliamentary democracy in Germany after the First World War.



164. To what extent and in what ways did intellectual developments in Europe in the period 1880-1920 undermine confidence in human rationality and in a well-ordered, dependable universe? (1983)

165. To what extent and in what ways has twentieth-century physics challenged the Newtonian view of the universe and society? (1986)







RUSSIAN REVOLUTION



166. Compare and contrast the crises in state authority that precipitated the French Revolution in 1789 and the February and October Revolutions in Russia in 1917. (2009B #6)



167. Describe and analyze the long-term social and economic trends in the period 1860 to 1917 that prepared the ground for revolution in Russia. (1994)



168. “The tsarist regime fell in 1917 because it had permitted tremendous change and progress in some areas while trying to maintain a political order that had outlived its time.”

Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the abdication of Nicholas II in 1917.(1987)

169. Compare and contrast the roles of the peasantry and urban workers in the French Revolution of 1789 to those of the peasantry and urban workers in the Russian Revolutions of 1917. (1985)



170. Compare and contrast the extent to which the French Revolution (1789 – 1799) and the Russian Revolution (1917 – 1924) changed the status of women. [2004A -- #2]





AGE OF ANXIETY & WORLD WAR II

171. How did new theories in physics and psychology in the period from 1900 to 1939 challenge existing ideas about the individual and society? [2001 #5]

172. Describe and analyze the ways in which Marxism, Freudianism, and the women’s movement challenged traditional European beliefs before the First World War.(1991)



173. “1914-1918 marks a turning point in the intellectual and cultural history of Europe.”

Defend, refute, modify this statement with reference to the generation before and the generation after the First World War.(1981)

174. To what extent and in what ways did nationalist tensions in the Balkans between 1870 and 1914 contribute to the outbreak of the First World War? (1998)



175. Assess the extent to which the economic and political ideals of Karl Marx were realized in post-revolutionary Russia in the period from 1917 to 1939. [2005 #6]



176. How and in what ways did European painting or literature reflect the disillusionment in society between 1919 and 1939?

Support your answer with specific artistic or literary examples.(1989)



177. Contrast European diplomacy in the periods 1890 to 1914 and 1918 to 1939, respectively. Include in analysis goals, practices, and results. (1992)



178. Compare and contrast the efforts to ensure European collective security that were made by the victorious powers between 1815 and 1930 (after the Napoleonic Wars) with those made by the victorious powers between 1918 and 1933 (after the First World War). (1985) (ANSWER)



179. Compare and contrast the Congress of Vienna (1815) and the Paris Peace Conference (1919 – 1920) in terms of the aims and effectiveness of the diplomatic settlements reached at each conference. (Practice Exam)



180. Raphael’s School of Athens and Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (images)

Contrast the ways in which the paintings shown express the artistic and intellectual concerns of the eras in which the works were created. [2004B -- #4]



181. In what ways and why did Lenin alter Marxism? (1983)

182. Compare the economic roles of the state under seventeenth-century mercantilism and twentieth-century communism. Illustrate your answer with reference to the economic system of France during Louis XIV’s reign under Colbert and of the Soviet Union under Stalin. (1981)



183. What aspect of Russian society and institutions were most changed and what aspects were least changed by the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917? Limit your discussion to the first ten years of the new regime. [year?]



184. Compare the rise to power of fascism in Italy and in Germany. (1983)



185. Why did Germany’s experiment with parliamentary democracy between 1919 and 1933 fail? (1982)



186. What policies of the Stalinist government perpetuated the essential features of the tsarist regime under Nicholas II (1894-1917). (1982)



187. Compare and contrast the roles of British working women in the pre-industrial economy (before 1750) with their roles in the era 1850 to 1920. (1998)



188. Compare and contrast the patronage of the arts by Italian Renaissance rulers with that of dictators of the 1930’s. (1996)



189. Analyze the ways in which technology and mass culture contributed to the success of dictators in the 1920s and 1930s. [2004A -- #3]



190. Compare and contrast the ways that seventeenth-century absolute monarchs and twentieth century dictators gained and maintained their power. [2004B #6]



191. Account for the response of the European democracies to the military aggression by Italy and Germany during the 1930’s. (1997)



192. Analyze how the Balkan crises from 1903 to 1914 and the crises in central and Eastern Europe from 1935 to 1939 threatened Europe’s balance of power. (2007B #7)



193. Compare and contrast the relationships between the great powers and Poland between 1772-1815 and 1918-1939. (1996)



194. How did new theories in physics and psychology in the period 1900 to 1939 challenge existing ideas about the individual and society? (2001 #5)



195. Compare and contrast the French Jacobins’ use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals during the Terror (1793-1794) with Stalin’s use of state power to achieve revolutionary goals in the Soviet Union during the period 1928 to 1939. (2001 #7)



196. Compare and contrast the extent to which Catherine the Great and Joseph Stalin were “Westernizers.”



197. Compare and contrast the victorious Allied powers’ treatment of Germany after the First World War with their treatment of Germany after the Second World War. Analyze the reasons for the similarities and differences. [2005B]



198. Considering the period 1933 to 1945, analyze the economic, diplomatic, and military reasons for Germany’s defeat in the Second World War. (2006 #7)



199. Analyze the impact of the rise of militarism and the Second World War on the lives of European women. In your answer consider the period 1930 to 1950. (2007 #2)





COLD WAR

200. Analyze the causes of and responses to the 1968 crisis in France (2009B DBQ)



201. In 1945 Great Britain and the United States were allied with the Soviet Union. By 1950 the former allies were involved in a confrontation that divided Europe into rival blocs. Analyze the reasons for this change.

202. Considering the period 1918 to 1948, analyze the political and diplomatic problems faced by TWO of the following newly created Eastern European states:

Austria

Czechoslovakia

Hungary

Poland

(2009 #3)



203. Compare and contrast the social and economic roles of the state in 17th and 18th century Europe (before 1789) to the social and economic roles of the state in Europe after the Second World War. (2006 #5)

204. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the economic revival of Western Europe between 1945 and 1970. (1986) (ANSWER)



205. Analyze criticisms of European society presented by European authors in the period 1940 to 1970. Be sure to discuss at least two (2) works. (1992) (ANSWER)





206. Analyze the ways in which the Cold War affected the political development of European nations from the end of the Second World War in 1945 to the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. (1987) (ANSWER)



207. Describe and analyze the changing relationships between the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries from 1945 to 1970.(1991)



208. Identify four specific changes in science and technology, and explain their effects on Western European family and private life between 1918 and 1970. (1995)



209. Analyze the ways in which technology was an issue in European social activism between 1945 and 1970. Be sure to include three of the following: environmentalism, peace movements, student protest, women’s movements, worker’s movements. (1990) (ANSWER)



210. Compare and contrast the women’s suffrage movements of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with the European feminist movements of the 1960’s and 1970’s. (1996)



211. Describe and analyze the resistance to Soviet Authority in the Eastern bloc from the end of the Second World War through 1989. Be sure to include examples from at least two Soviet satellite countries. (1997)



212. Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of the Cold War (1945-1991) on Western Europe with the effects on Eastern Europe. (2001 #6)



213. Using specific examples from Eastern and Western Europe, discuss economic development during the period 1945 to the present focusing on the following: Economic recovery and integration. (1998)



214. Compare and contrast the political and economic policies of Joseph Stalin before the Second World War and those of Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991). (2000)



215. Many historians have suggested that since 1945, nationalism has been on the decline in Europe. Using both political and economic examples from the period 1945 – 2000 evaluate the validly of this interpretation. (2002 #6)



216. Analyze the factors working for and against European unity from 1945 to 2001. (2004 #4)



217. Analyze three reasons for the end of Soviet domination over Eastern Europe. (2003 #5)

218. Analyze the factors responsible for decolonization since the Second World War. [2005B #7]

219. Describe and analyze economic policies in Eastern and Western Europe after 1945. (2006)B

220. Analyze the economic and social challenges faced by Western Europe in the period from 1945 to 1989. (2008 #4)



221. Many historians have suggested that since 1945, nationalism has been on the decline in Europe. Using both political and economic examples from the period 1945 – 2000, evaluate the validity of this interpretation. (2002 #6)



222. Contrast late-nineteenth century European attitudes and policies about race to those after 1950. (2008 B #2)



223. Considering the period 1953 to 1991, analyze the problems within the Soviet Union that contributed to the eventual collapse of the Soviet system. (2007 #3)



224. Analyze the ling-term and short-term factors responsible for the disintegration of communist rule in TWO of the following states:

Czechoslovakia

East Germany

Hungary

Poland

(2009 #2)



225. Compare and contrast the goals and achievements of the feminist movement in the period circa 1850 – 1920 with those of the feminist movement in the period 1945 to the present. (2010 # 6)



226. Analyze the ways in which the theories of both Darwin and Freud challenged traditional European ways of thinking about religion, morality, and human behavior in the period circa 1850 – 1950. (2010 #7)



227. Analyze the political and economic effects of changing population patterns in Western Europe in the period circa 1950 to the present. Cite specific examples from at least TWO countries. (2010B #5)





Here is a list of essays from 1995 to the present.  They are an amazing study tool.

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